Category Archives: Review

Getting started with Natural Load Testing

I’ve been following the products of WonderNetwork for a while as they do some interesting stuff with servers around the world. I particularly like Wonder VPN as a drop dead simple and reliable VPN is very handy for any mobile user who wants some security when using a wireless network in Starbucks!

Recently they have been working on a new product called Natural Load Testing which is intended to make load testing your web application very simple. It’s a very friendly service which is immediately apparent on the home page where it says “not logged in, no greeting. how sad”. It’s a little touch that appeals to me.

Natural Load Testing is currently in private beta and the WonderNetwork guys invited me into the beta and have been generous enough to spend a small part of their marketing budget to enable me to be able to publish this article. They’ve even managed to cope with my list of complaints and still talk to me! In this tutorial I will walk through how to use the Natural Load Testing product (as is today) to get some results. Interpreting the results and improving your website and server infrastructure is your job though :)

Getting Started

Natural Load Testing (shortened to NLT in this article!) consists of 4 main areas where you interact with it:

  • Creating tests
  • Configuring test suites
  • Running test suites
  • Reviewing results

Upon log in, the home page consists of a set of friendly buttons:

Natural Load Testing home page

We start at the beginning: creating tests.

Creating tests

When load testing you need to configure your testing tool with the URLs of the pages and resources the you want to be tested. Natural Load Testing makes this job trivial by cleverly leveraging their proxy technology. By configuring your browser to use the NLT proxy, it will record every page you visit and provide you with a list of URLs which you can then use to create tests.

Obviously, as load testing involves hitting the server with a lot of requests, by the time NLT is out of beta, you will need to authorise each domain that you want to use. This is done in the “Manage Authorised Domains” section.

There is a helpful page on the NLT site that explains how to do this. Don’t forget to turn off the proxy after recording. The WonderNetwork people have also remembered that you may want to record HTTPS traffic for load testing, and have provided a root certificate that you’ll need to install. Again, there’s help available on how to install this.

Once you have recorded some URLs, you can then click on the “Create” button and you are presented with a list of the most recent URLs you have recorded.

Recorded URLS

To create the test, you select the URLs that you require to be included (the checkbox in the header selects all within the group, which is very handy!). You then choose a name that will help you remember what this test does and create the test.

In order to create some interesting load tests on our site, I created a good few tests which I could then group into test suites.

Configuring test suites

Your tests are grouped into suites that are then run either sequentially or as a set of random loads. To create a suite, you click on the “Configure” button which then shows you the list of the suites that you have already created.

Test suites

In this screenshot you can see two test suites that I’ve created. The second test “ZF2 Tutorial only” is the simplest suite possible as it contains a single page load within a single step. The top suite shows a more complex suite which hints at the complexity of the suites that you can create.

A suite is composed of one or more steps which are run in sequence. Each step can have multiple tests. If there are multiple test in the same step, then NLT will randomly pick one test for each run.
In this suite I have four tests in step 1 which are a set of pages within the BRI website. Step 2 is the contact page and so this test suite is measuring visiting one of 4 pages within the site and then choosing to go to the contact page.

Creation of a new test suite is done via drag and drop:

Create new test suite

You simply drag your green tests over to the list of steps on the right hand side. It’s all quite easy. Rather weirdly, you can’t reuse the same test in multiple steps, so if you’re testing a cycle, then you need to duplicate the same test so that you can place it into two different steps. I haven’t found a way to edit the steps within a test suite once created either, so make sure you get it right!

Once you have added tests to steps, you can then tell NLT to send data whilst load testing. This is useful for filling in forms or logging into the website, for instance. I haven’t used this section as I haven’t yet tested any pages with forms or requiring login.

Rather useful fully, you can change the domain that a test suite uses. This enables you to duplicate a test suite and then change the domain to test domain that’s running on another server or using a different configuration which makes side-by-side testing a little easier.

Calibration

Once we have created a test suite, the next step is to calibrate it. NLT will not allow you to run a test suite before calibration, so don’t forget this bit! Calibration is done from the test suites list page where there is a drop down box of operations you can do on each suite:

Operations on a test suite

Simply pick Calibrate and press Go. NLT will then perform a single run over your suite and present the standard results page. Ideally, I would like to see this page look different from the standard results page as it’s a calibration run, not a standard test and so I was slightly confused at this point. Also, whilst the test is running, you simply see one of those “spinning gifs” to let you know that something is happening. I ran into a bug in this section which resulted in the calibration run failing, but I was never notified on the page that an error had occurred.

The calibration results on my ZF2 tutorial page suite look like this:

Calibration results

The intent of calibration is to provide a base-line to the NLT of the performance of the suite when there is no load. i.e. the idea is that this single run has provided an indication of the optimal conditions and we are expecting to be within 15% of this performance when testing under load.

Running test suites

Now that we have calibrated test suites, we can run some load tests and see what happens. In NLT parlance, we run test suites by pressing the Play button at which point the terminology changes to from play to execute. Simply select your test suite and press the Execute button. You are then presented with a form in order to set the run parameters:

Starting to execute a test

There are three parameters you need to set:

Concurrent Users How many users will hit your test suite. For steps with multiple tests, each user will randomly pick one to run.
Total Executions How many times the suite will be run
Spin up Delay Number of milliseconds before introducing the next user. A delay of 500 will results in 2 users per second being introduced to the load up to the total Concurrent users.

We set these numbers up to create the required load testing profile. I’ve been using 100 users at 250ms spin-up for 2000 total executions as this takes around 30 to 60 seconds to complete a run and seems a reasonable profile for my blog given its traffic levels.

Upon pressing execute, NLT will spin up a number of worker processes on its servers and then display a graph that updates every few seconds showing you what happening:

Graphical results

As you can see in the screenshot above, you get this information:

  • A bar showing number of active requests (blue) on top of number of requests initiated.
  • A line chart of median response time.

The x-axis is in seconds. Hence the red bar chart shows the number of requests initiated during each second and the blue bar shows the number of requests that were still active at the end of the second. Hence a request that completed within a second is counted in the red bar, but not in the blue. Ideally, therefore we would like to see smaller blue bars than red bars and we definitely don’t want to see blue bars getting bigger.

The green line shows us the average time it takes to server all requests in that second. Ideally, we want this number to be lower. Clearly, if there are any errors serving a request (e.g. an nginx bad gateway error), the rather fast failure time is not counted as it would bring the average down!

We can also view the data as a table:

Tabluar data

Obviously, this is right at the start of the run, and so all look good. Clicking on a given run id will provide us with more information. This is a run that’s later in the test:

Detailed results

As you can see, the server was struggling now! The red background means that the request took more than 15% longer than the calibration run and the difference from calibration is shown in brackets in the Response Time column. In this particular run, the main HTML took 760ms to deliver which as 411ms longer than the calibration run. We’re also struggling to serve images in a sensible time. This is clearly not ideal!

Looking at what’s going on on the server whilst running a load test is also instructive. A good introduction to the server tools that are useful is 16 Linux server monitoring commands you really need to know by Steven Vaughan-Nichols.

Reviewing results

Once you have a few runs under your belt, the Review page becomes useful. In this page we can see a list of all our previous runs and most importantly, we can edit the title of each run and give it a useful name. It would be nice to be able to store additional notes about each run though.

Previous runs

Adding the title makes it much easier to remember why a given run was performed and I’ve found it useful.

Using Natural Load Testing to improve performance

The obvious first target for testing NLT, was my blog at akrabat.com. This is a simple WordPress blog which recently moved to a new server. I haven’t been particularly worried about performance and don’t really expect to ever be slash-dotted (or is it Cal-dotted, nowadays!) any time soon.

However, as I’ve done nothing to tune the system, this is a good time to see how it behaved. The first run produced these results:

NLTp 1

This isn’t good! The only good sign was that none of the 2000 runs actually resulted in an error. A median response time around 1.5 seconds didn’t sound good and the maximum run time was 13 seconds!

Something had to be done!

A little bit of investigating showed that neither APC or WP Super Cache was installed on the server. So I turned them on.

The effect of APC can be seen here:

NLTp 2

We now have an average response time of much less than 500ms which seems much saner. There were a number of very long requests of over 1 second though.

To see if I could improve this further, I then installed and enabled WP Super Cache in PHP mode and re-ran Natural Load Testing. The results were:

NLTp 5

Note that you need to be careful when comparing graphs as the axes are automatically scaled. Looking at the results with WP Super Cache was enabled, I can see that the response time display of the graph is much smoother. The tabular data backs this up as it shows that the vast majority of requests were taking less than 200ms with significantly fewer runs taking much longer. Also, the curve of the number of requests initiated vs request active at the end of each second is much smoother, which indicates that with WP Super Cache enabled, the server should be able to hold its own over a longer time period much more easily.

I tested this hypothesis by doing 5000 runs rather than the 2000 shown above. The result was:

NLTp 6

Again, the median response time is nicely under 150ms for most of the time, but we have more variance in the response time, with a couple of seconds where the median was significantly over 250ms.

On the whole, my investigations with NLT have made my blog much more responsive and more likely to be able to handle more traffic than before I started this process.

Other thoughts

Having walked though what Natural Load Testing does, I also need to point out that when using it, you can tell that this is a product still in beta! Incidentally, the WonderNetwork people have responded to my reports quickly, even if half the time it was to let me know that my idea or complaint was already on their list!

Nearly all the issues I have with NLT at the moment are related to usability, which I’m sure will be ironed out over time. My “favourite” annoyance as noted above is on the create test suite page where the Save button is above the section where you set up the suite’s steps. If you accidentally press Save after entering a title, then you find you can’t actually add any tests to the steps! There’s also no menu bar or easy way to get from one section to another. You very quickly learn to click on the NLT logo at the top which takes you to the home page.

It would also be good if NLT would allow me to store “execution profiles” so that I don’t have to keep typing in that I want 100 users for 2000 total runs.

I would also like to see more aggregate results. In particular, I’d like to have stats on the response time for say the 50th and 95th percentile. I’d also like to graph these against multiple runs along with the run title so I can see how the site’s performance changed over time. This then leads to the idea that it would be nice if I could schedule a load test once a month at 3am local time!

Conclusion

Natural Load Testing is the first product I’ve used that makes me actually want to do load testing. It makes it easy to run a specific load test and repeat exactly the same test as frequently as you need to. Tweaking the server to see the effect that any given change has becomes an interesting task and your websites can only benefit as you reduce and remove the bottle necks that you find.

On the whole, I’m quite impressed with Natural Load Testing and can see that it could turn into a very useful tool in the web developer’s toolbox.

As I mentioned at the top, NLT is currently in private beta. If you want to get an invite, head over to the sign up form and fill in your details. You also have to read the thank you for signing up message!

Pragmatic Version Control Using Git

I’ve recently been looking at different version control systems, specifically distributed ones like git, Bazaar and Mercurial. At IPC I was talking to Travis Swicegood about wanting to learn and he very kindly organised a copy of his book for me to review and learn from.

I didn’t know much about git at all before reading the book. I do now :)

It turns out that git is fairly easy when you have a good explanation of how to use it. The book starts from the basics of what version control is, which I already knew. It was good to see equal coverage of how to set up git in Windows, OSX and Linux. I was aware that Windows support wasn’t prime-time, but at least doable with msys.

The bulk of the book covers how to actually use git and this is where I learnt enough about git to actually understand it. There were two main surprises for me:

  • You need to re-add a modified file every time you want to commit it. This puts it in the staging area. Fortunately the -a switch to git add will auto-add for you!
  • Directories are not stored under version control. It’s like CVS :)

Other than that, it’s just like Subversion, only faster! (You also have that distributed thing going on.)

I suck at reviewing.

Pragmatic Version Control Using Git is a very good book if you want to learn git.

It’s even better as a reference book as you can actually find things in it too.

If you want to know all there is to know about git, then get this book.

Even the paper feels good in your hand when you turn the page.

A review of “Learning PHP Data Objects”

packt_learning_pdo.png

Packt Publishing recently sent me a couple of books to review. This post is about the second one I received, Learning PHP Data Objects by Dennis Popel. I was excited to receive this book as PDO underlies a lot of the Zend_Db_Adapter objects that I use in my day to day programming. It seemed like a good idea that I should know more about it.

Overview of the book

This book starts out introducing PDO and then takes us on a tour through all its features including error handling and prepared statements along with more advanced features like scrollable cursors.

The first chapter introduces PDO and shows the basics of how to use it to connect to a database, issue a query and retrieve the resultant data. The author also makes the distinction about how the code he is showing is example code and provides pointers to what’s missing (such as proper error messages) if you were to use the code in production. I liked this very much as it’s important as authors that we realise that inexperienced readers have a tendency to copy/paste examples and use as-is. The introductory chapter closes with a look at prepared statements and so covers all the high points of PDO.

Having introduced the subject, chapter 2 looks in detail at using PDO to connect to a database. This chapter is more tutorial-ish and the code is presented to be typed in. A worked example of a book database is used from here on throughout the rest of the book. The author appears to expect the user to learn what the code does by reading the comments within the code body, as there is little explanation of what the code does in the prose. One thing that’s tricky is that when there is explanation after a code block, it’s hard to work out which bit of the block the author is referring to. On the whole though, the tutorial nature provides step-by-step progress for people who learn best that way.

Chapter 3 covers error handling. I was pleased to see this important topic given an entire chapter and so early in the book. Error handling is not an after thought here. This chapter provides a good discussion of the types of errors that you will encounter and then provides instructions on how to handle them. Again, the tutorial aspect of the book is emphasised with lots of code to type in. Some of it is in bold, but I’m not sure why as no reference is made to it in the prose. This chapter also starts a dangerous trend where four pages of code is presented (without line numbers) and then the following page or so dissects the code with reference to line numbers that do not exist! This makes the explanation of the code really hard to follow, especially when the you get to the section about lines 189 to 191… This chapter also continues the tutorial by building more pages and showing you how to check for errors along the way.

Chapter 4 studies prepared statements and shows how to use them. Positional and named placeholders are looked at, along with how to insert blobs using bound parameters. In this chapter, the bold sections in the code make more sense as they are referenced in the prose. Again, we have pages of code with no line numbers and then are asked to study lines 60 to 73. The information in this chapter is nevertheless very good and I learnt stuff :)

Having looked at getting data into the application, chapter 5 looks at retrieval and rowsets. This chapter covers counting the number of rows returned and limiting rowsets. It’s much shorter as it covers less topics and I’m glad the author didn’t pad the chapter just to get the page count up! Chapter 6 is also relatively short, but this time covers a lot of ground. These are advanced topics and include connection attributes, buffered queries, dsn files for connections and transactions. The transactions section gets the most space and is covered quite less, though with rather less prose for the volume of code than I would have liked.

The last chapter in the book is a bit of an odd ball as it looks as designing a model within an MVC application. To me this didn’t fit with the specialist PDO nature of the book, and I’d have rather have had more space devoted to transactions or database specific issues.

In summary

This book is an good, detailed tutorial for understanding PDO. It is not a reference book and so relatively hard to dip into to look up a specific thing. If you learn by starting from scratch and working your way through, then this is a very good book. The biggest distraction for me was the long code listings. It would have been better to have either put in line numbers or interspersed the code with the textual explanations.

A review of “Object-Oriented Programming with PHP5″

packt_oop_with_php5.png
Packt Publishing recently sent me a couple of books to review, so let’s start with Object-Oriented Programming with PHP5 by Hasin Hayder. According to the introduction, the book is intended for beginners to intermediate PHP5 programmers and the first chapter has a good introduction to what object oriented programming is and why you would want to use it.

Overview of the book

Chapters two and three of the book are an excellent discussion of how objects work in PHP and cover everything from the use of $this through to object cloning and fluent interfaces. Chapter 4 gives a basic introduction to design patterns, however I feel that it covers too many patterns in not enough detail. It does provide the terminology required though for communicating with other developers about design patterns which will also help when searching the web for more information.

Chapter 5 then introduces reflection and unit testing. This is an odd couple to put together and the entire chapter feels like the author was padding. There are long pages of code with very little explanation of what the code does and no example of real-world usage of the Reflection classes. The unit testing half provides a good introduction to unit testing and shows how to use it. Rather oddly, there’s a 10 page table listing all the PHPUnit assert functions which would have been better left to the PHPUnit documentation as the table provides no added value.

Chapter 6 introduces the SPL. Like the design patterns chapter, it covers a lot of objects in relatively shallow depth. Good code examples are provided to show how to use the SPL objects, but again, there’s not really enough textual explanation of the code or discussion of real-world usage. Similarly, chapter 7 covers object oriented database access with MySQLi, PDO, ADOdb and MDB2. It finishes up with a couple of pages ADOdb’s ActiveRecord object. It’s all a bit rushed.

XML is introduced in chapter 8 with SimpleXML and DOM are looked at. Again, a very basic introduction is provided. For example XPath is covered in 3 pages and I still have no idea how to actually use it in a project. The final chapter in the book covers the MVC design pattern as implemented in the author’s home-grown framework. As with the rest of the book, a lot of code is presented with little explanation of why the code has been written. For example, the view class presented provides __get(), but not __set(). There is no explanation as to why __get() would be required in a view class, but not __set().

In summary

This book is a whistle-stop tour through object oriented concepts with PHP5 and I’m left with mixed feelings about it. The best parts are chapters 2 and 3 which provide a solid introduction to objects and classes. The rest of the book covers too many disparate topics in very little depth to be useable on its own for those topics.